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提供全方位戒菸服務


101年3月1日起,衛生福利部推出「二代戒菸服務」,將門診及住院、急診病人都納入戒菸治療適用對象,規劃增加培訓專業的戒菸衛教人員,以面對面方式,進行戒菸衛教及個案管理服務外;並透過整合轄區內資源,於職場、學校等場域,團隊出擊,提供戒菸衛生教育指導、諮詢、戒菸教育服務!戒菸用藥以菸捐支持比照一般健保用藥,病人每次處方,僅須付兩成以下、最高200元之部分負擔,低收入戶、山地原住民暨離島地區全免。並於同年9月開辦合約藥局給藥及戒菸衛教暨個案管理,透過社區藥局的便捷性與藥事人員的專業性及服務時間的彈性,提供個案客製化諮詢與支持,能就近協助社區民眾戒菸服務。為增加戒菸服務之可近性,自103年5月起新增牙醫師及藥劑生參與戒菸服務申請資格。另,自104年11月起原住民使用戒菸服務免藥品部分負擔,減輕戒菸治療就醫負擔。

 

相關資源

  「國民健康署戒菸專線服務中心」成立於2003年,為全亞洲首創,目前由彰化基督教醫療財團法人彰化基督教醫院承辦,訓練具備心理輔導、諮商、社會工作及教育等相關科系的專業人員提供服務,提供戒菸諮詢及相關資訊,協助戒菸者擬訂戒菸策略與計畫,戒菸成功比例近四成,與世界先進國家相當。

戒菸專線六大優點

  1. 便利性:全國任何地點,一通電話就可以開始戒菸。
  2. 免負擔:戒菸專線0800-636363免付費電話,不必花任何一毛錢。
  3. 成功率:透過戒菸專線協助,戒菸成功率近四成。
  4. 個別化:由專業諮詢人員進行一對一電話訪談,協助來電者量身打造個人戒菸計畫。
  5. 整合性:整合醫療院所及其他相關戒菸機構,提供多元戒菸服務。
  6. 保密性:建置資訊化服務系統,強調資訊安全工作,以確保來電民眾資料保密性。

戒菸專線服務方式

  • ●服務時間:週一至週六 09:00 - 21:00(除過年期間與週日外,國定假日照常服務)
  • ●服務方式:可使用手機、市話、公用電話撥打免費專線0800-636363,亦可使用LINE(ID:@tsh0800636363)進行諮詢
  • ●服務內容:提供專業的戒菸諮詢服務
  • ●服務對象:吸菸者本人、吸菸者的親友或希望取得戒菸資訊者等
  • ●專線地址:彰化市建寶街20號5樓
  • ●服務電話:(04)723-8595 分機8510
  • ●傳真號碼:(04)711-9000

戒菸專線 諮詢成效

  自2003至2020年累計服務達142萬7,507人次,個案管理達38萬8,377人次。以2020年為例,服務對象以51-64歲居多,男女性比例約8:2,接受服務之個案整體滿意程度為97.64%,六個月點戒菸成功率為44.88%。

  因應時代變遷,民眾溝通媒介的轉變,傳統市內電話已不再是唯一的溝通媒介,自2008年6月加入了行動電話撥入服務,更於近年新增網路通訊服務LINE(ID:@tsh0800636363),提高民眾聯繫戒菸專線的方便性及增加社會支持的管道,讓戒菸變得更容易,以提昇吸菸者之利用。依美國疾病管制暨預防中心建議之服務品質指標與台灣的戒菸專線服務相比較,皆有符合且高於其建議標準。

美國疾病管制暨預防中心建議指標與我國戒菸專線現況之比較
服務指標 美國CDC建議指標 我國戒菸專線現況
接通率 90-95% 91%
接聽率 30秒內95% 30秒內95%
留言當日回電率 100% 100%
寄發手冊及相關資料時間 48小時內 48小時內
民眾要求立即諮商率 50% 100%

 

 

 

 

 

衛生福利部國民健康署戒菸專線服務中心
IG粉絲團網址(開新視窗):https://reurl.cc/AgNoOe
LINE@網址(開新視窗):https://lin.ee/6Y5sagq
YouTube頻道網址(開新視窗):https://reurl.cc/8ygd6b

 

戒菸故事

  個案林小姐,年紀約五十幾歲,目前尚在就業當中。個案本身已經有20年的菸齡,過去曾經有戒菸的紀錄,但只維持了三個多月,因為家中媳婦的一席話,在生氣之下又把菸拿起來抽。不過今年個案去求助戒菸門診,決定要把菸品完全戒掉。

  個案描述自己是不折不扣的老菸槍,每天需要抽到兩包菸。每位便利超商的店員都認識個案,並且知道她所喜愛的品牌以及數量。家中的成員只有個案本身會抽菸,為了讓家人刮目相看也為了自己的健康著想所以決定再戒菸一次,而這一次個案投注大量的精神與毅力。

  在求助戒菸門診時,醫師開立戒必適給個案作使用,但是戒必適的副作用對個案產生極大的副作用,造成她頭痛欲裂、噁心與惡夢等強烈的不適,雖然讓個案產生不碰菸的念頭,卻也非常痛苦。然而個案並沒有因為藥品的痛苦而產生退卻戒菸的念頭,反而為了不想要再承受戒菸藥的副作用,產生堅決的戒菸意志。個案的戒菸方式,並非逐漸減少菸量,而是在看戒菸門診的第一天就把一天兩包菸徹底戒掉,這樣的意志力聽在諮詢員的耳裡真不禁令人佩服。另外,個案也在來電中分享,在戒菸的過程當中不斷連續夢到她又抽菸的噩夢,幸好醒來一切都是一場夢,這讓個案覺得這或許在考驗她是否要戒菸的決心。

  在戒菸的這兩個月,身旁的同事、親友,甚至是超商店員無一不抱持著驚訝與存疑的態度看待個案。

  真的戒菸了嗎?一天兩包菸的老菸槍真的戒掉了嗎?

  然而確認事實以後,身邊親友都真心為個案感到高興,也非常敬佩她的精神,連原本會嫌棄個案很臭的媳婦也願意與她一同相處,也會偕同丈夫多多回家陪伴母親吃飯。至今個案本身還不敢說自己已經完全戒菸成功,但是從言談之中,可以得知個案對於這次戒菸的成果相當的滿意,也願意將自己戒菸的經驗分享給其他人,並也鼓勵要戒菸的每一個人,在戒菸的這條路上最大的敵人就是自己,除了靠醫師的協助之外,就是自己鋼鐵般的意志力。個案也非常謝謝諮詢員對於自己的鼓勵,讓她能夠繼續堅持自己所走的戒菸道路。

  後記:戒菸專線在林姐來電過程中強化及支持她毅然決然的行動;希望個案在想要抽菸的當下,想起有一個專線能夠陪伴她的戒菸旅程。

  小林是一位全職考生,因準備考試壓力大,心理上突然萌出想吸菸的想法,但越是使用菸品,感覺壓力更大。來電時小林提到︰因為爸爸是長期吸菸者,他從小觀察發現爸爸與媽媽年紀相仿,但是外表明顯蒼老許多,牙齒狀態也不好;從父母親的身體情況,小林不想往後也變成爸爸這樣身體變差、皮膚老化變醜,在煩惱中撥了戒菸專線電話尋求諮詢。

  專線諮詢員與小林溝通過程中,適時提出菸害會讓自身造成哪些疾病,加強不去碰菸品的意志力,因為吸菸並不能釋放壓力,只會帶來額外的壓力。諮詢員諮商過程也也同理小林全職考生的辛苦,準備考試勢必是條很辛苦的路,需要堅定的意志力去分配所有考科的課程時間表,建議當讀書讀到很煩躁時,也可以先把書本放下來,到戶外透透風或者找朋友談心、吃個喜歡的小點心等等很多方式,放鬆一下自己心情,別讓自己陷在這無形的壓力裡,並日復一日持續壓抑卻找不到方向抒發。

  小林在電話中提到自己的朋友,久久才點一支菸起來抽,諮詢員提醒她,每個人的定力跟當下想吸菸的想法各不相同,可能碰了這一口,大腦就會回想當初使用菸品的情境,若意志力不夠,復吸時菸量可能會更多。諮詢員建議小林若在有這種想法出現時,可以先想想當初戒菸的動機以及往後吸菸的壞處,以降低念頭。

  在電話諮詢結束前,小林表示在諮詢過程中增加了不少菸害的知識,有些菸害的資料自己本身就有先上網搜尋過,但是這通電話讓她覺得其實還有很多她不知道的知識,對她幫助很大,也在諮詢過程中,順利度過當下的菸癮,沒有產生想使用菸品的念頭。諮詢員鼓勵她,以後只要又蹦出吸菸的想法,當下無法應對時,都可以在點起菸品之前,先撥打戒菸專線電話,專線同仁永遠都在戒菸的路上與她同行。

  當您蹦出吸菸念頭,無法應對時,可以先撥打戒菸專線電話:0800-636363,專線同仁願意在戒菸路上與您同行。

  劉先生吸菸已逾三十年,過去因為業務的身分必須與人互相交際應酬,所以無法停止手上的菸品。當時他認為這是最簡單、便宜能夠得到對方信任的工具,這種菸不離手的社交方式,也因此束縛他三十多年。現在體悟到使用菸品的人口漸漸在減少,家人也都不吸菸,為了不要造成別人的困擾及產生二手菸與三手菸,所以開始實行自己的戒菸計畫。

  劉先生剛進線時,就告知諮詢員他已經設定好9月1日要完全戒菸、不會再碰任何一支菸品。在專線服務時聽到這番話,心中感動油然而生,因為劉先生已經明確指出要戒菸的時間點,代表他準備好戒菸並展現決心。

  身為諮詢員-我的角色就是加強個案戒菸的心理準備,列舉戒菸之後可能產生的戒斷症狀,以及相關協助緩解的方式並且也說明如果碰到菸癮發作時應該如何去緩解,像是含咬吸管、準備小番茄、胡蘿蔔條或是小黃瓜條……等等的方式,最後就是促使個案努力執行自己的戒菸計畫。

  劉先生目前規劃好一個小時只允許自己吸一支菸,一整天下來大概使用十幾支左右。再來就是拉長時間每支菸的間隔,約兩小時、三小時,以循序漸進的方式慢慢脫離菸品。期待等到最後為自己所設定的戒菸日之後,就能脫離被菸品掌控的狀況。

  劉先生也跟諮詢員說明他已經沒有退路了,因為已經告訴女兒要戒菸,所以如果沒有在設定的戒菸日戒菸,女兒就有理由能夠罵自己;諮詢員聽到這裡時心中不禁莞爾一笑。對家人的戒菸宣告也是戒菸進程的一大重點,目的是能夠獲得家人的支持,以及對自己戒菸的承諾。

  劉先生在戒菸的路上,有了家人的支持及陪伴,提供了他更為可靠的動力。

  而最後諮詢員也協助劉先生建立自信,不要因為不小心多吸了一支菸而覺得挫敗,適時導正自己的行為,那麼依舊是朝著成功的方向前進。

 

後記:

 很多吸菸者會覺得戒菸很困難,大多是戒斷症狀不舒服、無法擺脫菸癮,或是不敢勇於跨出戒菸的第一步。

  當這位個案已經確立自己的戒菸日時,讓我如此欽佩。目標的明確性會增加戒菸的動機、動力與執行力,也祝福個案在接受這次諮詢之後能夠穩定自己的信心,增加新的戒菸方式,最終贏得戒菸後健康人生的勝利!

103個戒菸的理由(MORE THAN 100 REASONS TO QUIT TOBACCO)

吸菸導致每年八百萬人死亡。吸菸者有較高的風險成為COVID-19的嚴重個案的證據引起上百萬的吸菸者開始想戒菸。儘管戒菸具有挑戰性(尤其是在疫情導致社會與經濟壓力增加時),但仍有極多的理由要戒菸。

戒菸的效益幾乎是立即性的:停止吸菸20分鐘,心跳就會下降復原;停止吸菸12小時,血液中一氧化碳濃度就會降至正常值;停止吸菸2到12週,血液循環與肺部功能均會增加;停止吸菸1到9個月,咳嗽跟急促呼吸情形症狀會顯著獲得改善;停止吸菸5到15年,中風機率降低至與非吸菸者一樣;停止吸菸10年,肺癌死亡風險會較吸菸者降低50%;停止吸菸15年,罹患冠狀動脈心臟病風險無異於非吸菸者。假如這些好處還不夠,以下還有更多戒菸的理由。

Tobacco causes 8 million deaths every year. When evidence was released this year that smokers were more likely to develop severe disease with COVID-19 compared to non-smokers, it triggered millions of smokers to want to quit tobacco. Quitting can be challenging, especially with the added social and economic stress that have come as a result of the pandemic, but there are a lot of reasons to quit.

The benefits of quitting tobacco are almost immediate. After just 20 minutes of quitting smoking, your heart rate drops. Within 12 hours, the carbon monoxide level in your blood drops to normal. Within 2-12 weeks, your circulation improves and lung function increases. Within 1-9 months, coughing and shortness of breath decrease. Within 5-15 years, your stroke risk is reduced to that of a non-smoker. Within 10 years, your lung cancer death rate is about half that of a smoker. Within 15 years, your risk of heart disease is that of a non-smoker. If that’s not enough here are a few more reasons!

 

  1. 吸菸者有較高的風險成為COVID-19的嚴重及死亡個案。(Smokers have a greater risk of developing a severe case and dying from COVID-19.)

吸菸會立即影響個人外觀(TOBACCO AFFECTS YOUR LOOKS ALMOST IMMEDIATELY)

  1. 每樣東西都會散發異味,從你的皮膚、住家、衣衫、手指和呼吸。(Everything stinks! From your skin, to your whole house, your clothes, and your fingers and breath.)
  1. 吸菸會導致牙齒變黃與增加牙菌斑。(Tobacco causes teeth to yellow and creates excess dental plaque.)
  1. 不論使用菸草或無煙菸草均會造成口臭。(Smoking tobacco and the use of smokeless tobacco cause bad breath.)
  1. 吸菸會導致皮膚產生皺紋、看起來更快老化,因為吸菸會加速蛋白質(與皮膚彈性有關)流失、消耗皮膚的維他命A、限縮血流循環,而使皮膚提早老化。(Tobacco makes your skin wrinkly, making you look older faster. Smoking prematurely ages the skin by wearing away proteins that give the skin elasticity, depleting it of vitamin A and restricting blood flow.)
  1. 吸菸導致皮膚產生皺紋,尤其是嘴唇跟眼睛附近,同時也會造成皮膚粗糙與乾燥。(These wrinkles are more apparent around the lips and eyes and tobacco also makes skin leathery and dry.)
  1. 吸菸會增加乾癬風險,乾癬是非接觸傳染的一種皮膚發炎,會導致全身皮膚癢、滲出紅斑。(Tobacco smoking increases the risk of developing psoriasis, a noncontagious inflammatory skin condition that leaves itchy, oozing red patches all over the body.)

吸菸不只會危害個人健康,也會危害朋友與家人健康(IT THREATENS THE HEALTH OF YOUR FRIENDS AND FAMILY – NOT JUST YOU.)

  1. 每年有上百萬人因暴露二手菸而死亡。(Over 1 million people die every year from exposure to second-hand smoke.)
  1. 暴露於二手菸的非吸菸者有罹患肺癌風險。(Non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke are at risk of developing lung cancer.)
  1. 吸菸是引起意外火災導致死亡的重要因素。(Cigarettes remain an important cause of accidental fires and resulting deaths.)
  1. 電子煙也會導致非吸菸者及周遭人暴露於尼古丁與其他有害化學物質。(E-cigarettes also expose non-smokers and bystanders to nicotine and other harmful chemicals.)
  1. 暴露於二手菸可能會增加從潛伏感染惡化為開放性結核病的風險。(Being exposed to second-hand smoke may increase the risk of progression from tuberculosis infection to active disease.)
  1. 暴露於二手菸增加罹患第二型糖尿病風險。(Being exposed to second-hand smoke is associated with type 2 diabetes.)

在兒童旁吸菸或使用電子煙會危及其健康與安全(Smoking or using e-cigarettes around children compromises their health and safety)

  1. 吸菸者的孩子會遭受肺部功能下降,且在其成年後持續受所導致的慢性呼吸系統疾病的影響。(Smokers’ children suffer reduced lung function, which continues to affect them in the form of chronic respiratory disorders in adulthood.)
  1. 兒童暴露於電子煙液中會造成嚴重風險,包括設備滲漏或兒童誤吞電子煙液。(Exposure of children to e-cigarette liquid continues to pose serious risks. There is a risk of the devices leaking, or of children swallowing the liquid.)
  1. 目前已經有一些已知的使用電子煙導致的嚴重傷害,包括燃燒、起火、爆炸。(E-cigarettes have been known to cause serious injuries, including burns, through fires and explosions.)
  1. 學齡兒童暴露於二手菸也可能增加氣喘風險。(School-aged children exposed to the harmful effects of second-hand smoke are also at risk for asthma through inflammation of the airways to the lungs.)
  1. 兩歲以下兒童在家中暴露於家庭二手菸可能會導致中耳疾病,進而可能導致聽力受損。(Children under 2 years of age who are exposed to second-hand smoke in the home could get middle-ear disease possibly leading to hearing loss and deafness.)
  1. 戒菸可降低許多兒童因二手菸暴露導致的疾病風險,例如呼吸道疾病(氣喘)跟耳部感染。(Quitting smoking decreases the risk of many diseases related to second-hand smoke in children, such as respiratory diseases (e.g., asthma) and ear infections.)

吸菸有負面社會後果(TOBACCO USE HAS NEGATIVE SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES)

  1. 你會想當孩子、朋友與親密伴侶的好榜樣。(You want to be a good example for your kids, friends, and loved ones.)
  1. 吸菸有礙於社交互動與社會關係。(Tobacco use can affect social interactions and relationships negatively.)
  1. 戒菸意味著你將不會受限於可以去哪裡:你可以參加社交活動且不會感到被孤立或必須要出去吸菸。(Quitting means there are no restrictions on where you can go – you can mingle socially, without feeling isolated or having to go outside to smoke.)
  1. 戒菸可以讓你更有生產力:你不會因為要吸菸而一直停下手邊正在做的事情。(Quitting can make you more productive – you won’t have to stop what you are doing to have a smoke all the time.)

吸菸是昂貴的:你可以把錢花在更重要的事物上(IT’S EXPENSIVE - YOU COULD BE SPENDING YOUR MONEY ON MORE IMPORTANT THINGS)

  1. 有研究指出,吸菸者平均會花140萬美金於個人花費,包括購買紙菸、醫療花費,以及因為吸菸跟二手菸暴露所導致的低薪。(One study found that smokers burn through an average of $1.4 million in personal costs, includes spending on cigarettes, medical costs and lower wages brought on by smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke.)
  1. 吸菸會影響工作者的健康與生產力,使他們易於錯失工作日。(Tobacco use affects the health and productivity of workers making them prone to missed days at work.)
  1. 吸菸會加劇貧窮:將家庭支出從基本需求(如食物與住所)轉移至菸品。(Tobacco use contributes to poverty by diverting household spending from basic needs such as food and shelter to tobacco.)
  1. 吸菸造成全球經濟負擔,估計有4兆美金的醫療花費用於治療因菸害導致的疾病,以及可歸因於菸之疾病與死亡的人力資本損失。(Tobacco use burdens the global economy with an estimated US$ 1.4 trillion in healthcare costs for treating the diseases caused by tobacco and lost human capital from tobacco-attributable sickness and death.)

 吸菸降低生殖能力(SMOKING REDUCES YOUR FERTILITY)

  1. 吸菸者較易有不孕症情形。戒菸可降低不易受孕、早產、低出生體重、流產等風險。(Smokers are more likely to experience infertility. Quitting smoking reduces difficulty getting pregnant, having premature births, babies with low birth weights and miscarriage.)
  1. 吸菸會導致勃起功能障礙。吸菸限制血流進入陰莖造成無法正常勃起功能。勃起功能障礙常見於吸菸者,且若未早點戒菸,將很可能會持續或永久性障礙。(Smoking can cause erectile dysfunction. Smoking restricts blood flow to the penis creating an inability to achieve an erection. Erectile dysfunction is more common in smokers and very likely to persist or become permanent unless the man stops smoking early in life.)
  1. 吸菸會降低男性精子品質與數量。(Smoking also diminishes sperm count, motility and shape of the sperm in men.)

各種形式的菸品都是致命的(ALL FORMS OF TOBACCO ARE DEADLY)

  1. 每年可歸因於菸草的死亡人數超過八百萬人。(Every year, over 8 million people die from tobacco.)
  1. 菸品造成一半的吸菸者死亡。使用任何形式的菸品均會損害個人健康、導致罹患疾病。(Tobacco kills half of its users. Use of tobacco in any form robs you of your health and causes debilitating diseases.)
  1. 水煙跟其他菸品一樣有害。(Smoking shisha is just as harmful as other forms of tobacco use.)
  1. 嚼菸會導致口腔癌、掉牙、牙齒變黃褐色、口腔白斑跟牙齦疾病。(Chewing tobacco can cause mouth cancer, tooth loss, brown teeth, white patches and gum disease. )
  1. 相較於紙菸,無煙菸草的尼古丁更易被吸收而使人上癮。(The nicotine in smokeless tobacco is more easily absorbed than by smoking cigarettes enhancing its addictiveness.)

你買菸的同時,等同你經濟支持了剝削農民、兒童並踐踏疾病與死亡的產業(WHEN YOU BUY TOBACCO, YOU ARE FINANCIALLY SUPPORTING AN INDUSTRY THAT EXPLOITS FARMERS AND CHILDREN AND PEDALS SICKNESS AND DEATH.)

  1. 菸農因透過皮膚吸收尼古丁及接觸大量農藥、菸草粉塵而導致健康不良。(Tobacco growers are exposed to ill health by nicotine that is absorbed through the skin, as well as exposure to heavy pesticides and exposure to tobacco dust.)
  1. 某些國家的兒童會受僱於菸草種植,進而影響其健康與求學。(In some countries, children are employed in tobacco farming, which impacts not only their health, but also their ability to attend school.)
  1. 使用菸草產品會惡化貧窮。因吸菸者有較高罹癌風險、心臟病發、呼吸道疾病或其他菸草引起的相關疾病,以致家庭喪失收入、增加額外健康照顧支出。(Tobacco use can worsen poverty since tobacco users are at much higher risk of falling ill and dying prematurely of cancers, heart attacks, respiratory diseases or other tobacco-related diseases, depriving families of much-needed income and imposing additional costs for health care.)
  1. 整體菸草產業絕大多數受僱者的收入很少,但大型菸草公司獲取龐大利潤。(The vast majority employed in the overall tobacco sector earn very little, while the big tobacco companies reap enormous profits.)

加熱菸有害健康(HEATED TOBACCO PRODUCTS ARE HARMFUL TO HEALTH)

  1. 加熱菸的使用者暴露於會致癌的有毒氣體。(Heated tobacco products (HTPs) expose users to toxic emissions many of which can cause cancer.)
  1. 加熱菸也是菸:「從吸傳統紙菸換成加熱菸」不等於「戒菸」。(Heated tobacco products are themselves tobacco products, therefore, switching from conventional tobacco products to HTPs does not equal quitting.)
  1. 沒有足夠證據可支持「相較於傳統紙菸,加熱菸危害較少」的論調。(There is insufficient evidence to support the claim that heated tobacco products (HTPs) are less harmful relative to conventional cigarettes.)

電子煙有害健康且不安全(E-CIGARETTES ARE HARMFUL TO HEALTH AND NOT SAFE)

  1. 電子煙是青少年使用紙菸的入門磚:使用電子煙的兒童與青少年有較高(兩倍)的未來吸紙菸風險。(Children and adolescents who use e-cigarettes at least double their chance of smoking cigarettes later in life.)
  1. 使用電子煙會增加心臟與肺部疾病風險。(E-cigarette use increases your risk of heart disease and lung disorders.)
  1. 電子煙中的尼古丁是一種高度成癮的藥物,將會損害兒童發育中的大腦。(Nicotine in e-cigarettes is a highly addictive drug that can damage children’s developing brains.)

使用菸草的後果將會讓人大吃一驚(TOBACCO USE, PARTICULARLY SMOKING, TAKES YOUR BREATH AWAY)

  1. 全球約25%的癌症死亡原因可歸因於菸草使用。(Tobacco use is responsible for 25% of all cancer deaths globally.)
  1. 相較於非吸菸者,吸菸者有高達22倍的風險會罹患肺癌。吸菸是罹患肺癌的主因,導致全球有超過2/3的肺癌死亡。(Smokers are up to 22 times more likely to develop lung cancer in their lifetime than non-smokers. Tobacco smoking is the primary cause of lung cancer, causing over two thirds of lung cancer deaths globally.)
  1. 每五個吸菸者中就會有一位會罹患慢性阻塞性肺部疾病,尤其是那些從兒童或青少年時期就開始吸菸者,因為吸菸會顯著降低肺部發展。(One in five tobacco smokers will develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in their lifetime, especially people who start smoking during their childhood and teenage years, since tobacco smoke significantly slows lung growth and development.)
  1. 吸菸將會惡化成人氣喘:造成行動限制、障礙及急性氣喘發作風險。(Smoking can exacerbate asthma in adults, restricting their activity, contributing to disability and increasing the risk of severe asthma attacks requiring emergency care.)
  1. 吸菸會提高結核病從潛伏狀態轉變為活躍狀態的風險一倍以上,並會惡化該疾病的自然發展。(全球約有四分之一的人口患有潛伏性結核病)(Tobacco smoking more than doubles the risk of transforming tuberculosis from a latent state to an active state, and is also known to worsen the natural progression of the disease. About one quarter of the world’s population has latent tuberculosis.)

菸草有害心臟健康(TOBACCO BREAKS HEARTS)

  1. 每天只抽幾支菸、偶爾抽菸或暴露於二手菸環境下均會增加心臟疾病罹患之風險。(Just a few cigarettes a day, occasional smoking, or exposure to second-hand smoke increase the risk of heart disease.)
  1. 吸菸者有兩倍的罹患中風風險、四倍的罹患心臟疾病風險。(Tobacco smokers have up to twice the risk of stroke and a fourfold increased risk of heart disease.)
  1. 吸菸有害心臟動脈,會造成斑塊、凝血塊,進而阻礙血流,最終導致心臟病發與中風。(Tobacco smoke damages the arteries of the heart, causing the build-up of plaque and development of blood clots, thereby restricting blood flow and eventually leading to heart attacks and strokes.)
  1. 使用尼古丁與菸草產品會增加心血管疾病風險。(Use of nicotine and tobacco products increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.)

有超過二十種癌症與使用菸草有關(TOBACCO CAUSES OVER 20 TYPES OF CANCER)

  1. 吸菸或使用無煙菸品會導致口腔癌,唇癌,咽喉(咽和喉)和食道癌。(Smoking and smokeless tobacco use cause oral cancer, cancers of the lips, throat (pharynx and larynx) and oesophagus.)
  1. 手術切除喉癌將導致有氣管切開術的需求。(氣管切開術是在頸部跟氣管開口,使病患可以呼吸。)(Surgical removal of the cancerous larynx can lead to the need for tracheostomy, the creation of a hole in the neck and windpipe that allows the patient to breathe.)
  1. 吸菸者有顯著較高罹患急性骨髓性白血病、鼻癌、鼻竇癌、結腸直腸癌、腎癌、肝癌、胰臟癌、胃癌、卵巢癌、下泌尿道癌(包括膀胱癌、輸尿管癌、腎盂癌)風險。(Smokers are at a significantly higher risk of developing acute myeloid leukaemia; cancer of the nasal and paranasal sinus cavities; colorectal, kidney, liver, pancreatic, stomach or ovarian cancer; and cancer of the lower urinary tract (including the bladder, ureter and renal pelvis).)
  1. 有些研究指出,吸菸增加罹患乳癌風險,尤其是那些重度吸菸者和初次懷孕前開始吸菸的女性。(Some studies have also demonstrated a link between tobacco smoking and an increased risk of breast cancer, particularly among heavy smokers and women who start smoking before their first pregnancy.)
  1. 吸菸增加感染人類乳頭瘤病毒的女性罹患子宮頸癌的風險。(Smoking is also known to increase the risk of cervical cancer in women infected with human papillomavirus.)

吸菸者有較高失明與失聰風險(SMOKERS ARE MORE LIKELY TO LOSE THEIR VISION AND HEARING)

  1. 吸菸會導致許多眼部疾病,若未及時治療將可能導致永久性視力喪失。(Smoking causes many eye diseases which, if left untreated, can lead to permanent vision loss.)
  1. 相較於不吸菸者,吸菸者有較高的老年性黃斑部病變風險:老年性黃斑部病變會導致不可逆的視力喪失。(Smokers are more likely than non-smokers to develop age-related macular degeneration, a condition that results in irreversible vision loss.)
  1. 吸菸者有較高罹患白內障的風險:白內障會使眼睛水晶體混濁,進而擋住光線。白內障會導致視力受損,手術是恢復視力的唯一選擇。(Smokers also have a higher risk of cataracts, a clouding of the eye’s lens that blocks light. Cataracts cause vision impairment, and surgery is the only option to restore vision.)
  1. 有些證據顯示吸菸會導致青光眼:青光眼會增加眼壓、損害視力。(Some evidence suggests that smoking also causes glaucoma, a condition that increases pressure in the eye and can damage eyesight.)
  1. 成年吸菸者有較高失聰風險。(Adult smokers are more likely to suffer hearing loss.)

菸草有害於每一個器官(TOBACCO HARMS ALMOST EVERY ORGAN OF THE BODY)

  1. 終生吸菸者之壽命,平均來說至少損失10年。(Lifelong tobacco smokers lose at least 10 years of life on average.)
  1. 每吸一口菸,有毒跟致癌物質會伴隨進入身體,其中有至少70種物質已知會致癌。(With every puff of a cigarette, toxins and carcinogens are delivered to the body, at least 70 of the chemicals are known to cause cancer.)
  1. 吸菸者有較高罹患糖尿病風險。(The risk of developing diabetes is higher in smokers.)
  1. 吸菸是失智症的風險因子,失智症是種心智衰退的疾病。(Smoking is a risk factor for dementia, a group of disorders that result in mental decline.)
  1. 阿茲海默症是常見的失智症類型,全球有14%的阿茲海默症可歸因於吸菸。(Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia, and an estimated 14% of Alzheimer’s cases globally can be attributed to smoking.)
  1. 吸菸的女性較易經歷經痛、嚴重更年期症狀。(Women who smoke are more likely to experience painful menstruation and more severe menopausal symptoms.)
  1. 吸菸女性的更年期會提早1~4年:因為吸菸會導致減少卵子產生,繼而導致喪失生殖功能喪失與後續的低雌激素。(Menopause occurs 1–4 years earlier in female smokers because smoking reduces the production of eggs in the ovaries, resulting in a loss of reproductive function and subsequent low estrogen levels.)
  1. 使用菸品會降低運輸到身體組織的氧氣。(Tobacco smoke reduces the delivery of oxygen to the body’s tissues.)
  1. 使用菸品會造成血液流動受限,若未及時治療,將可能導致壞疽(身體組織死亡)和患處截肢。(Tobacco use restricts blood flow which, if left untreated, can lead to gangrene (death of body tissue) and amputation of affected areas.)

 

  1. 吸菸會增加牙周病風險:牙周病是一種慢性發炎疾病,會毀壞牙齦與顎骨,進而導致牙齒脫落。(Tobacco use increases the risk of periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory disease that wears away at the gums and destroys the jawbone, leading to tooth loss.)
  1. 相較於非吸菸者,吸菸者有顯著較高的手術後併發症風險。(Tobacco smokers are at significantly higher risk than non-smokers for post-surgical complications.)
  1. 吸菸者較難脫離呼吸輔助機器,這將延長其在加護病房與整體住院時間,進而暴露於感染風險。(Tobacco smokers are harder to wean off mechanical ventilation. This often lengthens their intensive care unit (ICU) and overall hospital stay, potentially exposing them to other infection.)
  1. 吸菸者較易有消化道疾病,例如:胃潰瘍、發炎性腸道疾病、腹痛、持續性腹瀉、發燒、直腸出血、胃腸道癌症。(Smokers are likely to experience gastrointestinal disorders, such as stomach ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, associated with abdominal cramps, persistent diarrhea, fever and rectal bleeding, and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.)
  1. 吸菸者較易骨密度下降、骨折,以及嚴重併發症(例如:延遲康復、無法痊癒)。(Smokers are more likely to lose bone density, fracture more easily and experience serious complications, such as delayed healing or failure to heal.)
  1. 菸草製品內的成分會削弱免疫系統,使吸菸者暴露於肺部感染風險。(Components of tobacco smoke weaken the immune system, putting smokers at risk of pulmonary infections.)
  1. 具有自體免疫疾病遺傳傾向的吸菸者有較高的類風濕性關節炎、克隆氏症、細菌性腦膜炎、術後感染、癌症風險。(Smokers with a genetic predisposition to autoimmune disorders are at an increased risk of several diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, bacterial meningitis, postsurgical infection, and cancers.)
  1. 吸菸會使免疫力低下者(如:罹患囊腫性纖維化、多發性硬化症或癌症者)有較高的疾病相關併發症及早逝之風險。(Smoking also puts immune-compromised individuals, such as those living with cystic fibrosis, multiple sclerosis or cancer, at a higher risk of disease-related comorbidities and premature death.)
  1. 菸品的免疫抑制效果會使後天免疫缺乏症候群患者有較高的風險感染人類免疫缺乏病毒(愛滋病毒)。患有人類免疫缺乏病毒(愛滋病毒)的吸菸者,平均會減少3年壽命,其減少的壽命是患有愛滋病毒但未吸菸者所減少壽命的兩倍。(The immunosuppressive effects of tobacco put people living with HIV at an increased risk of developing AIDS. Among HIV-positive smokers, the average length of life lost is 12.3 years, more than double the number of years lost by HIV-positive non-smokers.)

菸品跟尼古丁使用有害胎兒(TOBACCO AND NICOTINE USE HARM YOUR BABY)

  1. 孕婦使用菸品和暴露於菸草環境中,會增加胎兒死亡風險。(Tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy increase the risk for fetal death.)
  1. 孕婦若使用菸品或暴露於二手菸,會增加流產風險。(Women who smoke or are exposed to second-hand smoke during pregnancy are at an increased risk of miscarriage.)
  1. 菸品(包括紙菸與無煙菸品)中的尼古丁及菸品產生的煙霧中的一氧化碳會引起胎兒缺氧跟異常胎盤,進而造成死胎風險。(Stillbirths (the delivery of fetuses that have died in the womb) are also more common owing to fetal oxygen deprivation and placental abnormalities induced by carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke and by nicotine in tobacco smoke and smokeless tobacco.)
  1. 吸菸者有較高子宮外孕的可能性,這對母親而言有致命性併發症的潛在風險。(Smokers are at higher risk of ectopic pregnancy, a potentially fatal complication for the mother in which the fertilized egg attaches outside the uterus.)
  1. 生育年齡婦女若有計畫懷孕或正在懷孕中,戒菸及避免二手菸暴露是非常重要的。(Smoking cessation and protection from exposure to second-hand smoke are especially important for women of reproductive age planning to become pregnant and during pregnancy.)
  1. 使用電子煙的孕婦有顯著風險,因電子煙會危害成長中胎兒。(E-cigarettes pose significant risks to pregnant women who use them, as they can damage the growing fetus.)
  1. 懷孕期間使用菸品(包括紙菸與無煙菸品)、暴露於二手菸的孕婦有較高的風險早產或生下低出生體重嬰兒。(Infants born to women who smoke, use smokeless tobacco, or are exposed to second-hand smoke during pregnancy have a higher risk of preterm birth and low birthweight.)

菸品會污染環境(TOBACCO POLLUTES THE ENVIRONMENT)

  1. 中央與地方政府均會為清理菸草垃圾付出成本,而非菸草公司自行負擔。戒菸有助於保護環境。(Governments and local authorities pay to clean up tobacco waste, not the tobacco companies themselves. Quit tobacco to protect the environment.)
  1. 菸蒂是全球最常見的廢棄物,也是在全球沙灘跟海域最常見的垃圾。(Cigarette butts are among the most commonly discarded piece of waste globally and are the most frequent item of litter picked up on beaches and water edges worldwide.)
  1. 菸蒂中可驗出的有害物質(包括砷、鉛、尼古丁與甲醛)將會進入到水生環境與土壤中。(Hazardous substances have been identified in cigarette butts – including arsenic, lead, nicotine and formaldehyde. These substances are leached from discarded butts into aquatic environments and soil.)
  1. 吸菸產生的煙霧會顯著提高城市內的空氣污染程度。(Tobacco smoke can measurably contribute to air pollution levels in a city.)
  1. 大多數紙菸是用火柴或(丁烷)打火機點燃的。例如,如果用一根火柴來點燃兩根菸,那麼以每年全球消耗的六兆支菸來估算,將需要破壞約900萬棵樹來生產三兆支火柴。(Most cigarettes are lit using matches or gas-filled lighters. If, for example, one wooden match is used to light two cigarettes, the six trillion cigarettes smoked globally each year would require the destruction of about nine million trees to produce three trillion matches.)
  1. 電子煙和加熱菸可能包含需要特殊配置的電池、化學藥品、包裝和其他不可生物分解的材料。(E-cigarettes and heated tobacco products may contain batteries that require special disposal as well as chemicals, packaging and other non-biodegradable materials.)
  1. 目前大多數塑膠材質的電子煙液包裝盒是無法被重複使用或回收使用,跨國公司傾向販售一次性產品,大概是為了透過回頭客增加銷售量。(Currently, the majority of plastic e-cigarette liquid cartridges are not reusable or recyclable – transnational companies tend to sell disposable ones, presumably to boost sales via repeat customers.) 
  1. 菸品排放量大概等同於三百萬趟的橫越大西洋飛行。(Tobacco production emissions are estimated to equate 3 million transatlantic flights.)
  1. 菸品產生的煙霧包含三種溫室氣體:二氧化碳、甲烷和一氧化二氮,並且會污染室內和室外環境。(Tobacco smoke contains three kinds of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides and pollutes indoor and outdoor environments.)
  1. 每年全球約有20萬公頃土地用於菸草的種植與燻製。(Worldwide, approximately 200 000 hectares are for tobacco agriculture and curing each year.)
  1. 為種植菸草而砍伐森林會帶來許多嚴重的環境影響,包括喪失生物多樣性、土壤侵蝕和損害、水污染以及增加大氣二氧化碳濃度。(Deforestation for tobacco growing has many serious environmental consequences – including loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and degradation, water pollution and increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide.)
  1. 種植菸草時通常會使用大量的化學物質,包括殺蟲劑、肥料、生長調節劑。這些化學物質可能會由種植區域內影響到飲用水源。(Tobacco growing usually involves substantial use of chemicals – including pesticides, fertilizers and growth regulators. These chemicals may affect drinking water sources as a result of run-off from tobacco growing areas.)
  1. 菸草的種植會造成大量樹木損失:每生產300支菸(約5箱)就需要砍一棵樹來種植菸葉。(For every 300 cigarettes produced (roughly 1.5 cartons), one tree is required to cure the tobacco leaf alone.)
  1. 每年約生產六兆支紙菸,所以約會製造出三千億個菸盒(假設每盒20支菸)。假設每個空盒約6克,相當於180萬噸包裝廢料,包括紙、墨水、玻璃紙、鋁箔、膠水。這些用以分配與包裝的紙箱與紙盒將帶來每年固體廢棄物總量達至少200萬噸。(With 6 trillion cigarettes manufactured annually, about 300 billion packages (assuming 20 cigarettes per pack) are made for tobacco products. Assuming each empty pack weighs about six grams, this amounts to about 1 800 000 tonnes of packaging waste, composed of paper, ink, cellophane, foil and glue. The waste from cartons and boxes used for distribution and packing brings the total annual solid post-consumption waste to at least 2 000 000 tonnes.)

原文來源:More than 100 reasons to quit tobacco https://www.who.int/news-room/spotlight/more-than-100-reasons-to-quit-tobacco(開新視窗)

戒菸的健康效應(Tobacco: Health benefits of smoking cessation)

戒菸的短期與長期健康效益(Are there immediate and long-term health benefits of quitting for all smokers?)

  1. 停止吸菸20分鐘:血壓與心跳會下降復原。
  2. 停止吸菸12小時:血液中的一氧化碳含量會降到正常值。
  3. 停止吸菸2~12週:血液循環與肺部功能均會增加。
  4. 停止吸菸1~9個月:咳嗽跟急促呼吸情形症狀會顯著獲得改善。
  5. 停止吸菸1年:罹患冠狀動脈心臟病的風險會降低50%。
  6. 停止吸菸5年:戒菸5~15年後,中風機率降低至與非吸菸者一樣。
  7. 停止吸菸10年:罹患肺癌的風險會較吸菸者降低50%,罹患口腔癌、咽喉癌、食道癌、膀胱癌、子宮頸癌和胰腺癌的風險也會降低。
  8. 停止吸菸15年:罹患冠狀動脈心臟病風險與非吸菸者無異。


Beneficial health changes that take place:

  1. Within 20 minutes, your heart rate and blood pressure drop.
  2. 12 hours, the carbon monoxide level in your blood drops to normal.
  3. 2-12 weeks, your circulation improves and your lung function increases.
  4. 1-9 months, coughing and shortness of breath decrease.
  5. 1 year, your risk of coronary heart disease is about half that of a smoker's.
  6. 5 years, your stroke risk is reduced to that of a nonsmoker 5 to 15 years after quitting.
  7. 10 years, your risk of lung cancer falls to about half that of a smoker and your risk of cancer of the mouth, throat, esophagus, bladder, cervix, and pancreas decreases.
  8. 15 years, the risk of coronary heart disease is that of a nonsmoker's.

已經罹患可歸因於菸之疾病者,仍可因戒菸而受益(Can people of all ages who have already developed smoking-related health problems still benefit from quitting?)

  1. 30歲戒菸:預估能延長10年壽命。
  2. 40歲戒菸:預估能延長9年壽命。
  3. 50歲戒菸:預估能延長6年壽命。
  4. 60歲戒菸:預估能延長3年壽命。
  5. 在罹患威脅生命的疾病後:心臟病發作後戒菸可降低第二次發作的風險50%。

Benefits in comparison with those who continued:

  1. about 30: gain almost 10 years of life expectancy.
  2. At about 40: gain 9 years of life expectancy.
  3. At about 50: gain 6 years of life expectancy.
  4. At about 60: gain 3 years of life expectancy.
  5. After the onset of life-threatening disease: rapid benefit, people who quit smoking after having a heart attack reduce their chances of having another heart attack by 50%.

戒菸對暴露於二手菸的兒童之利益(How does quitting smoking affect children who are exposed to second-hand smoke?)

戒菸降低許多兒童與二手菸暴露相關之風險,例如呼吸道疾病(氣喘)與中耳炎。
Quitting smoking decreases the excess risk of many diseases related to second-hand smoke in children, such as respiratory diseases (e.g., asthma) and ear infections.

戒菸的其他益處(Are there any other benefits to quitting smoking?)
戒菸有助於降低陽痿、不易受孕、早產、低出生體重、流產等風險。
Quitting smoking reduces the chances of impotence, having difficulty getting pregnant, having premature births, babies with low birth weights and miscarriage.

原文來源Tobacco: Health benefits of smoking cessation(開新視窗) 網址:https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/tobacco-health-benefits-of-smoking-cessation

Reference

  1. Mahmud, A, Feely, J. Effect of Smoking on Arterial Stiffness and Pulse Pressure Amplification. Hypertension. 2003; 41(1):183-7.
  2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: Nicotine Addiction: A Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. DHHS Publication No. (CDC) 88-8406. 1988.
  3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. DHHS Publication No. (CDC) 90-8416. 1990.
  4. Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observations on male British doctors. BMJ. 2004; 328(7455):1519-1527.
  5. US Department of Health and Human Services 2004, The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General, US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2004.

戒菸工具包Quitting Toolkit

克服菸癮的秘訣:

  1. 拖延:在與菸癮妥協之前,盡可能拖延。
  2. 深呼吸:深呼吸十次來放鬆自己,直到想抽菸的衝動結束。
  3. 喝水:喝水是一種健康替代抽菸的方案。
  4. 做其它事來轉移:沖澡、閱讀、散步、聽音樂。

社區內有許多資源,包括健康照護提供者(如:醫護人員)、戒菸專線及各類多元戒菸服務等可幫助支持您戒菸。

Quick tips to curb your cravings: 

  1. Delay: Delay as long as you can before giving in to your urge.
  2. Deep breathing: Take 10 deep breaths to relax yourself from within until the urge passes.
  3. Drink water: Drinking water is a healthy alternative to sticking a cigarette in your mouth.
  4. Do something else to distract yourself: Take a shower, read, go for a walk, listen to music!

There are many resources within your own community. Find out if your healthcare providers, Quit line Counsellors, mCessation programmes are available to support you in your journey to quit.

 

原文來源Quitting Toolkit 網址(開新視窗):https://www.who.int/campaigns/world-no-tobacco-day/world-no-tobacco-day-2021/quitting-toolkit/quick-tips